[8] [18] Maturin, the Marquis de Sade, and E.T.A. The thirteen American colonies manage to free themselves from British rule. [4], The key generation of French Romantics born between 1795-1805 had, in the words of one of their number, Alfred de Vigny, been "conceived between battles, attended school to the rolling of drums". (Eugene Delacroix, Orphan Girl at the Cemetery) Nature Where the art of the Enlightenment was decidedly social, Romanticism … American Romanticism was the first full-fledged literary movement that developed in the U.S. Romanticism. As opposed to everyday subjects, various forms of the exotic in time and/or place also gained favor, for the Romantics were also fascinated with realms of existence that were, by definition, prior to or opposed to the ordered conceptions of "objective" reason. Around the mid-century the undoubtedly Romantic novels of the Yorkshire -based Bront" family appeared. [7], Today a number of literary theorists have called into question two major Romantic perceptions: that the literary text is a separate, individuated, living "organism"; and that the artist is a fiercely independent genius who creates original works of art. [22] Native American cultures have a rich history of oral literature. [2] [2] A significant Romantic theme became the contrast between artist and middle-class "Philistine." [20] The Romantic Movement was first originated in Germany, quickly reached England, France, and afar, it spread in America roughly during 1820, some twenty years after William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge had transfigured English poetry by bringing out Lyrical Ballads. After the Bourbon Restoration, French Romanticism developed in the lively world of Parisian theatre, with productions of Shakespeare, Schiller (in France a key Romantic author), and adaptations of Scott and Byron alongside French authors, several of whom began to write in the late 1820s. •Sees poetry as the highest expression of the imagination, http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/eng372/intro-h4.htm, “The Middle Ages 1066-1485.” Elements of Literature Essentials of, British and World Literature Sixth Course. In America, the most famous Romantic poet was Edgar Allan Poe; while in France, Victor Marie Hugo was the leading figure of the movement. Discuss the political and theoretical foundations of Romanticism. [2] The onset of the Civil War marked the end of romanticism and the beginning of realism. [3], Wordsworth’s "Preface" to the second edition (1800) of Lyrical Ballads, in which he described poetry as "the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings," became the manifesto of the English Romantic movement in poetry. Romanticism (or the Romantic era/Period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe and strengthened in reaction to the Industrial Revolution. [2] Often considered the first period of American creativity, the Romantic period is placed within the historical context of westward expansion, the increasingly heated nature of the slavery question, and strained relations between the opposing desires for reform and … Terms in this set (26) what were the 2 historical events that caused romanticism. [2] [2] This connection is how history, current events and social events have impacted American Literature. [2] [5] Revival of ancient myths, customs and traditions by Romantic poets and painters helped to distinguish their indigenous cultures from those of the dominant nations (Russians, Germans, Austrians, Turks, etc.). [8], Useful as it is to trace the common elements in Romantic poetry, there was little conformity among the poets themselves. Richard Gravil’s Romantic Dialogues: Anglo-American Continuities, 1776-1862 (2000) describes the multivalent circulation of ideas around the Atlantic rim as driven by both broad historical trends and specific local events. The country was still in its infancy and was working to create its own cultural identity. [2] All of his poetry and prose are (unlike Almeida Garrett's) entirely Romantic, rejecting Greco-Roman myth and history. [18], Pushkin's Eugene Onegin and Lermontov's Pechorin from A Hero of Our Time both were influenced by the "Byronic" pose, the boredom of the superior romantic hero. Flashcards. 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