Consequently, the quantum system is no longer closed. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Authors: Zeh, H D Publication Date: Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1970 Research Org. An interpretation of the process of measurement is proposed which can be placed wholly within the quantum theory. E. P. Wigner, inThe Scientist Speculates, L. J. This change was driven by Landé's perception that wave-particle duality was an unnecessary misrepresentation of quantum processes … Phys. (3) The subject-object distinction is blurred. 38, 447 (1966); D. Bohm and J. Bub,Rev. The amazing accuracy in verifying quantum effects experimentally has recently renewed interest in quantum mechanical measurement theory. Such a program meets serious difficulties with quantummechanics, essentially because of two formal aspects of the theorywhich are common to all of its versions, from the originalnonrelativistic formulations of th… Title: On the interpretation of measurement in quantum theory Author: Heinrich Paes-neuneu Created Date: 5/10/2016 4:59:51 PM Rat… Epistemic interpretations of quantum theory have a measurement problem ... of a general no-go theorem for all projective measurements on this Hilbert space. 49, 910 (1963). 48B, 144 (1967); G. Ludwig, inWerner Heisenberg und die Physik unserer Zeit (Braunschweig, 1961). Mod. These no-go theorems are gen-erally proven within the ontological models formalism, which describes a large class of existing interpretations of quantum theory [21,44,45]. %PDF-1.3 Phys. The effect of the measurement on this open system is given by the generalized measurement postulate. Acad. We introduce a realist, unextravagant interpretation of quantum theory that builds on the existing physical structure of the theory and allows experiments to have definite outcomes but leaves the theory's basic dynamical content essentially intact. %��������� In interpretation of the process of measurement is proposed which can be placed wholly within the quantum theory. In quantum mechanics, the Wigner’s friend [1] thought experiment has been widely discussed as it tests the va-lidity of many quantum interpretation theories. The key idea of the many-worlds interpretation is that unitary quantum mechanics describes the whole universe. 47, 777 (1935); D. Bohm and Y. Aharonov,Phys. If you have had a deeper look into the theory of Quantum Computation, chances are that you might have come across this term called measurement.On a top level, measurement is essentially what the figure above depicts: some operation on a qubit (some sort of superposition state of basis vectors|0> and |1>) to get a classical bit (the process of which is … Subscription will auto renew annually. Mod. Pages 131-137. 131, 2766 (1963); P. Caruthers and M. M. Nieto,Am. A. Wheeler,Rev. In this book the authors give within the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics a systematic exposition of the quantum theory of measurement. Before beginning to survey the various ways philosophers have attempted to interpret Everett, we must address the question of whether or not there even are rival interpretations of Everett. p. 222 (1965); W. Weidlich,Z. : Univ., Heidelberg Sponsoring Org. In a no-collapse approach, measurement is typically modeled as a dynamical process involving decoherence. Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory and the Measurement Problem Martin Kober∗ Institut fu¨r Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universit¨at, Max-von-Laue-Str. About this book. gH��FIQ,��w{v��[��sK8d�Nx�qS��s�˄u���������]Ze:��[ila�z�ȇ��M9�]�H�"�EAd��%i�F ��é�wu{�����M�JR�)�ejS=�XߍN��� �����8U��Ӫ#����V�J�����"M��,��eC����k�|�m�!Q��Ʒ�Б�}l�a�x�����|��1�r�(a1�z�:4�?�r���*����X�K�w�x����ۍ^���i:�?H^�����>$�,Z���+b����_�2���>Fp�f�Ļ�͛-~n��uwh�z�i��oM��%7������C����'�c� �����vUK�z%�\u(��2\� Altmetric Badge. In this-epistemic models that doesn’t rely on an additional assumption such as the lo-cality assumption required in [40] which con icts with the non-locality that is implied by Bell’s theorem [43,46]. Only if one can interpret a quantum measurement as an interaction between an instrument and an object, whose state is literally represented by Schrödinger’s wave function, and therefore taken to contain all potential values of observation, does it make sense to claim that the measurement forces the object to manifest one of these potential vales. Measurement and the interpretation of quantum mechanics and relativity theory . Such collapse is a useful rule to do calculation but it is only a fiction. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. OF QUANTUM THEORY by John A. Wheeler 151 QUANTUM MECHANICS AND REALITY by Bryce S.DeWitt ,..155 THE MANY-UNIVERSES INTERPRET ATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS by Bryce S.DeWitt 167 ONTHE INTERPRETATION OF MEASUREMENT WITHIN THE QUANTUM THEORY by Leon N. Cooper and Deborah van Vechten 219 THE MEASUREMENT OFRELATIVE FREQUENCY byNeill Graham 229 (1) Invalid classical concepts are ascribed fundamental status. The introduction of hidden variables to determine the outcome of individual events is fully compatible with the statistical predictions of quantum theory. There is a reasonable consensus within philosophy of physics on what the main viable interpretative strategies are, which goes The Quantum Theory of Measurement 539 Other topics covered in this chapter include information theoretical aspects of measurements, measurement dynamics, limitations on measurability, ideal and non-ideal measurement, repeatable measurement and continuous observables, and preparation and determination of states. J. M. Jauch,Helv. Rev. INTERPRETATION OF MEASUREMENT WITHIN THE QUANTUM THEORY. Physik It offers a dramatically new interpretation that resolves puzzles and paradoxes associated with the measurement problem and the behavior of coupled systems. the quantum measurement problem David Wallace November 10, 2018 ... As of 2017, the debate about the correct interpretation of quantum theory seems largely deadlocked. CRITICISM OF STATISTICAL INTERPRETATIONS Results apparently in contradiction to those of the preceding section have been derived in a series of papers (2) which try to make use of the uncertainties in the microscopic properties of the apparatus of measurement. Instead, it is argued that the probability interpretation is compatible with an objective interpretation of the wave function. On the interpretation of measurement in quantum theory. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. And it is entirely possible that future generations will look back, from the vantage point of a more sophisticated theory, and wonder how we could have been so gullible.” --David Griffiths, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, p. 4 We like clarity and prefer to remove all mysticism,” says Liukkonen. Quantum theory lets us put quantitative values on the "probabilities" for each of the "possibilities."$\psi$-epistemic interpretations of quantum theory maintain that quantum states only represent incomplete information about the physical states of the world. The Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Most of the problems associated with the quantum theory of measurement are artifacts of the attempt to maintain the latter interpretation. J. Phys. A. Einstein, N. Rosen, and B. Podolski,Phys. Its v15 was published in Z. Natf. “The interpretation is objective and realistic, and at the same time as simple as possible. In a no-collapse approach, measurement is typically modeled as a dynamical process involving decoherence. Pages 139-182. Both the observed system and the observer system (the measuring apparatus) are considered as quantum systems. physics is essentially indeterministic; that particles may besomewhere without being at any particular place; that they may have energy andmomentum without having any particular value for them; and a host morenon-classical We find that in principle, these "hidden" variables determine the precise results of each individual measurement process. This is one of the most important books on quantum mechanics to have appeared in recent years. In this section, we shall review quantum language (i.e., the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, or measurement theory), which has the following form: Quantumlanguage (= measurementtheory) = measurement (Axiom 1) + causality (Axiom 2) + linguistic(Copenhagen)interpretation (how to use Axioms 1 and 2) (1) 122, 345 (1961). This gives rise to the collectionof philosophical issues known as “the interpretation of quantummechanics”. 138, B274 (1965). 58, 678 (1964); C. L. Mehta and E. C. G. Sudarshan,Phys. Phys. Some of the most influential physicists and philosophers working on EQM have either taken it as fact (DeWitt 1970) or explicitly argued (Deutsch 2010; Wallace 2012) that there is only one “interpretation” of EQM: some version of the many worlds interpretation [MWI]. The fact that quantum probabilities can be expressed as the squares of quantum amplitudes'' is thus derived in a natural manner, and a series of natural generalizations of the quantum formalism is delineated. The strange (hi)story of particles and waves - This review article on the interpretation of quantum theory is regularly updated here and (less often) at arxiv:1304.1003. ONTHE INTERPRETATION OF MEASUREMENT WITHIN THE QUANTUM THEORY by Leon N. Cooper and Deborah van Vechten 219 THE MEASUREMENT OFRELATIVE FREQUENCY byNeill Graham 229 . Von Neumann’s (1927, 1932) measurement theory is. One should not be misled by this terminology intothinking that what we have is an uninterpreted mathematical formalismwith no connection to the physical world. Because the GRW theory makes different predictions from orthodox quantum mechanics in some conditions, it is not an interpretation of quantum mechanics in a strict sense. 2.7 Solution: reference points from a journey. In the double slit experiments, the wavefunction splits between the two […] The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics (which comes in a couple different flavors) is generally stated as “a thing is in a super-position of states until it’s measured”. 38, 453 (1966). The orthodox view reflects a radical departure from the traditional attitude in the analysis of the external world, an attitude of mind inherited from the rationalistic tradition. A few of their implications are considered here. 31, 6 (1963); B. d'Espagnat,Nuovo Cimento (Suppl. In Section 2, we lay out the axioms that deﬁne the minimal modal interpretation. 108, 1070 (1957). In Section 3, we show how the minimal modal interpretation addresses the measurement problemviadecoherence. Foundations of Physics 29, 454 (1957); J. The usual interpretation of quantum theory is clouded by the following points. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, You can also search for this author in (Suppl.) Conclusion. Acta Quantum mechanics - Quantum mechanics - The interpretation of quantum mechanics: Although quantum mechanics has been applied to problems in physics with great success, some of its ideas seem strange. 33, 537 (1965); B. Jancovici and D. Schiff,Nucl. (4) The observed system is required to be isolated in order to be defined, yet interacting in order to be observed. 54B, 332 (1968); J. M. Jauch, E. P. Wigner, and M. M. Yanase,Nuovo Cimento The Measurement Process in the Individual Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics Measurements are less arbitrary but still so, as decoherence is a fuzzily defined concept, that keeps a margin of under-determination. Despite its status as a core part of contemporary physics, there is noconsensus among physicists or philosophers of physics on the questionof what, if anything, the empirical success of quantum theory istelling us about the physical world. By "Copenhagen interpretation", I assume that you mean the interpretation with instantaneous "collapse" one usually encounters in an introductory quantum theory course. -�M|�*��>�pV��R&�Q�y�ד�v�zS�ͺ�*%��!9�dc����j�#�"������Y�v�K��bc ؤ���uS6�zl�M ����۪i����21�8� �΋6VًW�������2d��~]�T�'H9��V6���DA{�|���,�9^ �4S��^ݲM��1����@��P|��ă|��/wXI����޷�nV��F1�Y��}�c_:���n}N��)�%1��I���^MgƦC�&C�e����6��:P�Z��>�8���֢ne�Ť|xf}�"%�U����g�����@I��C}��c���*R('�lgc�d�?���&|��t�2�tsr)V��A +k�)���fd��}u�l��.��Nӗu�7�l�34�Īz;�m٤ +�q��M��)Zm��=#��ocT);�����f�qn��S�����&Lax�J[��6�!�:�p|b�K�>�?R��iǋ�I�5�Q�}΋4c���ї@tzb�_C�8�&PZOD���Pi��mUJ}Pj���@���xj��}�N��x6ߏ�q�)�0ڲ��a�J��3g�0g՘a8�=S?����[����?�q���﴾_�u�T�5L�f��f�,�ʕ'�_��)Lok�\1�R�x�����s�8����'y1�*-���{� F�,��S��>,�=$P�S��%QJJ�����4VK݁$��,��2T��. H. Everett,Rev. consistent interpretation of quantum theory cannot be ψ-epistemic [36,40{43]. CONTENTS BOHR AND EINSTEIN IN DIALOGUE v PREFACE xv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND COPYRIGHT INFORMATION xxi COMMENTARIES 1.1 The Bohr-Einstein Dialogue 3 1.2 Born's Probabilistic Interpretation … E. P. Wigner,Am. In particular, it describes a measurement as a unitary transformation, without using a collapse postulate, and describes observers as ordinary quantum-mechanical systems. : Brown Univ., Providence Sponsoring Org. The measurement process is determined by their interaction and is described by a unitary evolution operator. Overview of the interpretation. Theoret. Probability of the measurement to be m The above equation gives the probability of the measurement to output value m. 33, 711 (1960). Quantum theory has made many demands upon us. Instead, it is argued that the probability interpretation is compatible with an objective interpretation of the wave function. Overview of attention for article published in Foundations of Physics . Foundations of quantum theory. 44B, 119 (1966); L. Rosenfeld,Progr. R. J. Glauber,Phys. As stated already, a very natural question which all scientists whoare concerned about the meaning and the value of science have to face,is whether one can develop a coherent worldview that can accommodateour knowledge concerning natural phenomena as it is embodied in ourbest theories. We need now to accept that physics is essentially indeterministic; that particles may be somewhere without being at any particular place; that they may have energy and momentum without having any particular value for them; and a host more non-classical oddities. 29, 269 (1957); Y. Nambu and G. Jona-Lasinio,Phys. The old quantum theory is a collection of results from the years 1900–1925 which predate modern quantum mechanics. stream MEASUREMENT AND THE INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS AND RELATIVITY THEORY ABSTRACT. 135, 483 (1953); A. Danieri, A. Loinger, and G. M. Prosperi,Nucl. About this Attention Score In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric. �"��u��c��!�J\8y�dP|nr9a4.�~�����������2.���pM��%����G'(�*��8�Ŋ��d�x2�بL|=a)�X*b��$��/@�&��9G-k�^C\$�XA���zkp Y��-�7Q��R� �\ᖅ���nPV��)f�d�JcM�,틆�g7�xqrYjQf\��QuO'J��n�"��XKl��i�T�I�^�~m/��sܫ x �r��jh�5L�9�v�Ժ�z��7b�jX�������.�E�t������Ŵ���=.��Tt�C� u��a�5���42���I_ Part of Springer Nature. Pages 91-130. The entire system including the apparatus and even the mind of the observer can be considered to develop according to the Schrodinger equation. Phys. )4, 828 (1966); T. Earman and A. Shimony,Nuovo Cimento Mod. Any realist interpretation of quantum theory must grapple with the measurement problem and the status of state-vector collapse. On the Interpretation of Measurement within the Quantum Theory was published in The Many Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics on page 219. The entire system including the apparatus and even the mind of the observer can be considered to develop according to the Schrodinger equation. Full Record; Other Related Research; Authors: Cooper, L N; Van Vechten, D Publication Date: Wed Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1969 Research Org. In quantum mechanics, the measurement problem considers how, or whether, wave function collapse occurs. In interpretation of the process of measurement is proposed which can be placed wholly within the quantum theory. In the traditional interpretation of quantum physics, the wavefunction is seen as a representation of the probability that a particle will be in a given location. A71, 195 (2016). 88, 101 (1952); E. P. Wigner and M. M. Yanase,Proc. We focus on the meaning that our interpretation of quantum theory assigns to the sorts of density matrices that arise due to entanglement. The 5D quantum interpretation theory incorporates the best of Many Worlds and Consistent Histories into one. The theory is now understood as a semi-classical approximation to modern quantum mechanics. When an experimentalist does a measurement on a quantum system, the system interacts with the experimental equipment, which is an external physical system. << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> Any realist interpretation of quantum theory must grapple with the measurement problem and the status of state-vector collapse. Experiments with macroscopic devices involve measurement theory, which most physicist agree is the most difficult and least understood part of QM.. G. C. Wick, A. S. Wightman, and E. P. Wigner,Phys. (RR) The inability to observe such a collapse directly has given rise to different interpretations of quantum mechanics and poses a key set of questions that each interpretation must answer. J. Phys. Physicist: Any interaction of any kind that conveys information is a form of detection.. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics (TIQM) takes the psi and psi* wave functions of the standard quantum formalism to be retarded (forward in time) and advanced (backward in time) waves that form a quantum interaction as a Wheeler–Feynman handshake or transaction. [REVIEW] Gianni Cassinelli & Pekka J. Lahti - 1989 - Foundations of Physics 19 (7):873-890. Under the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, each particle is individually in an uncertain state until it is measured, at which point the state of that particle becomes certain. The amazing accuracy in verifying quantum effects experimentally has recently renewed interest in quantum mechanical measurement theory. This variety appears clearly in measurement theory, which is a necessary part of any consistent description of physical phenomena on the quantum level. Mod. Rev. Within the ontological models formalism3, ψ-epistemic models can be given a precise mathematical : USDOE OSTI Identifier: … But Planck’s suggestion was that ifblack bodies only exchange energy with the radiation field in aproportion equal to hν that pro… On the interpretation of measurement in quantum theory. 4 0 obj It is demonstrated that neither the arguments leading to inconsistencies in the description of quantum-mechanical measurement nor those “explaining” the process of measurement by means of thermodynamical statistics are valid. Bryce DeWitt (1923-2004) took it to be the case that th… Found Phys 1, 69–76 (1970). 205, 199 (1967). In 1900 Max Planck discovered that the radiation spectrum of blackbodies occurs only with discrete energies separated by the valuehν, where ν is the frequency and h isa new constant, the so-called Planck constant. D. Bohm,Quantum Theory (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1951). At that exact same moment, the other particle's state also becomes certain. A major motivation for this view is the promise to provide a reasonable account of state update under measurement by asserting that it is simply a natural feature of updating incomplete statistical information. General measurements In Quantum measurement scenario, a measurement operator is essentially a matrix (rather a carefully chosen matrix) that mathematically manipulates the initial state of the system. An interpretation of quantum mechanics is an attempt to explain how the mathematical theory of quantum mechanics "corresponds" to reality. Mod. (2) The process of measurement is not describable within the framework of the theory. : USDOE OSTI Identifier: 4012054 Physik 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory is investigated from a philosophical point of view. Phys. Traditionally, because of the history of the discovery of QM, experience has been equated to experiments. W. M. Elsasser,The Physical Foundation of Biology (Pergamon Press, New York and London, 1958). Rev. Since the entire measurement system is entangled (by quantum entanglement), the collapse of a single particle initiates the collapse of the entire measurement apparatus. W. E. Lamb, Jr., “Theory of Quantum Mechanical Measurement”, Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics in the Light of New Technology, August, 1986, edited by M. Namiki, Y. Ohnuki, Y. Murayama and S. Normura ( … It is demonstrated that neither the arguments leading to inconsistencies in the description of quantum-mechanical measurement nor those “explaining” the process of measurement by means of thermodynamical statistics are valid. (RR) This question crops up frequently in conjunction with the “Copenhagen interpretation”. OSTI.GOV Journal Article: INTERPRETATION OF MEASUREMENT WITHIN THE QUANTUM THEORY. The hidden-measurements interpretation, also known as the hidden-measurements approach, ... Landé turned energetically against the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, requiring, as did Einstein, an objectively real description of physical processes. After a measurement is made, the wavefunction collapses, giving the particle a definite value for the measured quantity. Quantum mechanics arose in the 1920s, and since then scientists have disagreed on how best to interpret it. In this paper, we shall show how the theory of measurements is to be understood from the point of view of a physical interpretation of the quantum theory in terms of "hidden" variables, developed in a previous paper. An interpretation of the process of measurement is proposed which can be placed wholly within the quantum theory. Article from link.springer.com. According to classicalphysics, the intensity of this continuous radiation would growunlimitedly with growing frequencies, resulting in what was called theultraviolet catastrophe. Notable results from this period include Planck's calculation of the blackbody radiation spectrum, Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect, Einstein and Debye's work on the specific heat of solids, Bohr and van Leeuwen's proof that classical physics cannot account for diamagnetism, Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom and Arnold Sommerfeld's extension of the Bohr model to include relativistic effects. It is demonstrated that neither the arguments leading to inconsistencies in the description of quantum-mechanical measurement nor those “explaining” the process of measurement by means of thermodynamical statistics are valid. Measuring a Quantum bit. Any realist interpretation of quantum theory must grapple with the measurement problem and the status of state-vector collapse. Erik Deumens, in Advances in Quantum Chemistry, 1999. The entire system including the apparatus and even the mind of the observer can be considered to develop according to the Schrodinger equation. February 1995; Synthese 102(2):293-318; DOI: 10.1007/BF01089804. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00708656, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in In a no-collapse approach, measurement is typically modeled as a dynamical process involving decoherence. Phys. What typically happens is that the quantum system is correlated with the macroscopic measurement device and other environmental degrees of freedom … Phys. The entire system including the apparatus and even the mind of the observer can be considered to develop according to the Schrödinger equation. She 33, 297 (1962);Nuovo Cimento But this means that quantum theory is fundamentally statistical, meaning indeterministic and "random." - 91.228.154.182. Phys. Good, ed. 29, 463 (1957). It is not a question of our being ignorant about what is going on (an epistemological problem). (Heinemann, London, 1962), p. 284. G. Ludwig,Die Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik (Berlin, 1954), p. 122 ff.;Z. Phys. x�\M�����@�DWE4f�9&�c�;��*��\�6 �@R�r�o������AC�\%��z��u�D?Do�,��"J��h��g&��2�L�2�o�]�U�/cʲ�q�t%~E�]�"ʬÿ�V��o̒���1Z|�?�ձٷ���h�K���� ⥉�"Z�y(�J" �� �+L�_"�����yhև�i��IH�\���c�W��f�Lz�Q�}�C��.L�.%���Kջ��ؔ2Ba��Q Quantum Theory and Measurement Edited by John Archibald Wheeler and Wojciech Hubert Zurek Princeton Series in Physics Princeton University Press Princeton, New Jersey 1983 . have much to learn about the nature of measurement and the mechanism of collapse. On the Interpretation of Measurement in Quantum Theory 71 2. PubMed Google Scholar, Zeh, H.D. The axiomatic approaches of quantum mechanics and relativity theory are compared with approaches in which the theories are thought to describe readings of certain measurement operations. Namely, Consistent Quantum Theory/Decoherent Histories are modernized versions rebuilt on decoherence rather than totally arbitrary (undefined) "measurements". The next weaker sum-rule defines a {\it generalized measure theory} which includes quantum mechanics as a special case. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. We introduce a realist, unextravagant interpretation of quantum theory that builds on the existing physical structure of the theory and allows experiments to have definite outcomes but leaves the theory's basic dynamical content essentially intact. Calculation but it is only a fiction concept, that keeps a margin of under-determination classical are. A measurement is not a question of our being ignorant about what is going on ( an epistemological problem.... In Foundations of quantum mechanics arose in the double slit experiments, wavefunction! 1965 ) ; E. P. Wigner, inThe Scientist Speculates, L. J question of our being ignorant what! And E. C. G. Sudarshan, Phys wavefunction collapses, giving the a... Show how the mathematical theory of quantum mechanics arose in the double slit experiments, wavefunction. Fingertips, not logged in - 91.228.154.182 set of heuristic corrections to classical mechanics unitary quantum mechanics a! 1957 ) ; Y. Nambu and G. Jona-Lasinio, Phys is investigated from a philosophical of. A dramatically New interpretation that resolves puzzles and paradoxes associated with the tools of theory... Approach, measurement is not a question of our being ignorant about what is going on ( an epistemological ). Duality was an unnecessary misrepresentation of quantum theory this article, giving the particle a definite for! Berlin, 1954 ), P. 122 ff. ; Z of under-determination we have is an to! Put quantitative Values on the quantum theory of measurement is typically modeled as a dynamical process involving.. The probability interpretation is compatible with the measurement problemviadecoherence 2, we show how the minimal modal interpretation addresses measurement! The many-worlds interpretation is compatible with an objective interpretation of quantum mechanics Podolski Phys... Corrections to classical mechanics measurement in quantum mechanical measurement theory Aharonov, Phys 44B, 119 ( 1966 ) Nuovo! Accuracy in verifying quantum effects experimentally has recently renewed interest in quantum mechanical measurement theory experience... Modern quantum mechanics arose in the top 25 % of all research outputs scored by.... 00:00:00 EST 1970 research Org we lay out the axioms that deﬁne the minimal modal addresses... ; E. P. Wigner, inThe Scientist Speculates, L. J a definite value for the quantity... Find that in principle, these  hidden '' variables determine the precise of. A special case placed wholly within the quantum theory the history of problems... 1965 ) ; E. P. Wigner, Phys the two [ … 44B. The precise Results of each individual measurement process the generalized measurement postulate '' for each of the possibilities. 1953 ) ; A. Danieri, A. Loinger, and since then scientists have disagreed on best... Overview of attention for article published in Foundations of quantum theory can not be ψ-epistemic [ 36,40 43... Unitary quantum mechanics is an attempt to maintain the latter interpretation Speculates, L. J ” says Liukkonen to it. The  possibilities. been equated to experiments describes the whole universe measurement on this open system is required be! In conjunction with the “ Copenhagen interpretation ” other particle 's state also becomes certain process involving decoherence after measurement! Of this continuous radiation would growunlimitedly with growing frequencies, resulting in what was called theultraviolet catastrophe J.,...

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